* argument from incredulity (I find it hard to believe, therefore it can't be true)
* ad hominem
- reductio ad absurdum
- argumentum ad absurdum
Ad hominem, when you insult a person rather than tackle an argument you have already failed.
"if" ~ just because the outcome is 'C', it does not infer that it came from 'A'.
e.g. A -> C
B -> C
"if and only if"
Fundamental Theorem of "Exclusive OR":
any missing column can be derived from the remaining two.
if and only if (bijection)