Base64

[["Encoding"],["ANSI"],["Unicode"],["Unicode Big Endian"],["UTF-8"]]

[["", "HEX", "BASE64"], ["3 bytes =>", "6 char", "4 char"], ["", "", "33% savings"]]

1 byte
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■|□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■|■ ■ □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■|0 0 □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □   (*A==)
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■|0 1 □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □   (*Q==)
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■|1 0 □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □   (*g==)
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■|1 1 □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □|□ □ □ □ □ □   (*w==)
 
2 Bytes
  ****** **???? 0000XX XXXXXX   (**A=)
  ****** **???? 0001XX XXXXXX   (**E=)
  ****** **???? 0010XX XXXXXX   (**I=)
  ****** **???? 0011XX XXXXXX   (**M=)
  ****** **???? 0100XX XXXXXX   (**Q=)
  ****** **???? 0101XX XXXXXX   (**U=)
  ****** **???? 0110XX XXXXXX   (**Y=)
  ****** **???? 0111XX XXXXXX   (**c=)
  ****** **???? 1000XX XXXXXX   (**g=)
  ****** **???? 1001XX XXXXXX   (**k=)
  ****** **???? 1010XX XXXXXX   (**o=)
  ****** **???? 1011XX XXXXXX   (**s=)
  ****** **???? 1100XX XXXXXX   (**w=)
  ****** **???? 1101XX XXXXXX   (**0=)
  ****** **???? 1110XX XXXXXX   (**4=)
  ****** **???? 1111XX XXXXXX   (**8=)
3 Bytes
  ****** **???? ????## ######   (*??#)

* The buffer count of base64 characters will always be divisible by 4.

1. A -> Z = 26
2. a -> z = 26
3. 0 -> 9 = 10
4. +      = 1
5. /      = 1
----------- 64


[["", ""], ["000000", "A"], ["000001", "B"], ["000010", "C"], ["000011", "D"], ["000100", "E"], ["000101", "F"], ["000110", "G"], ["000111", "H"], ["001000", "I"], ["001001", "J"], ["001010", "K"], ["001011", "L"], ["001100", "M"], ["001101", "N"], ["001110", "O"], ["001111", "P"], ["010000", "Q"], ["010001", "R"], ["010010", "S"], ["010011", "T"], ["010100", "U"], ["010101", "V"], ["010110", "W"], ["010111", "X"], ["011000", "Y"], ["011001", "Z"], ["011010", "a"], ["011011", "b"], ["011100", "c"], ["011101", "d"], ["011110", "e"], ["011111", "f"], ["100000", "g"], ["100001", "h"], ["100010", "i"], ["100011", "j"], ["100100", "k"], ["100101", "l"], ["100110", "m"], ["100111", "n"], ["101000", "o"], ["101001", "p"], ["101010", "q"], ["101011", "r"], ["101100", "s"], ["101101", "t"], ["101110", "u"], ["101111", "v"], ["110000", "w"], ["110001", "x"], ["110010", "y"], ["110011", "z"], ["110100", "0"], ["110101", "1"], ["110110", "2"], ["110111", "3"], ["111000", "4"], ["111001", "5"], ["111010", "6"], ["111011", "7"], ["111100", "8"], ["111101", "9"], ["111110", "+"], ["111111", "/"] ]